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V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S J. 

Instruction and Ordinance concerning the 
Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy 

Introduction by 
Lawrence J. Madden, SJ. 

BX3701 .S88x 

Studies in the spirituality of Jesuits. 

Issue: v.35:no.2(2003:Mar.) 

Arrival Date: 04/11/2003 

O'Neill Periodicals 

35/2 • MARCH 2003 


The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in the 
United States. 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and practice of 
Jesuits, especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the members of 
the provinces through its publication, STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS. This is 
done in the spirit of Vatican Li's recommendation that religious institutes recapture the 
original inspiration of their founders and adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. 
The Seminar welcomes reactions or comments in regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits of 
the United States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other regions, to 
other priests, religious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the journal, while 
meant especially for American Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. Others who may find 
it helpful are cordially welcome to make use of it. 


Robert L. Bireley, S.J., teaches history at Loyola University, Chicago, IL (2001). 
Richard A. Blake, S.J., is chairman of the Seminar and editor of STUDIES; he teaches 

film studies at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (2002). 
Claudio M. Burgaleta, S.J., is executive director of Estudios Pastorales para la Nueva 

Evangelizacion, in Oceanside, NY (2002). 
James E Keenan, S.J., teaches moral theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 

Cambridge, MA (2000). 
Lawrence J. Madden, S.J., directs the Georgetown Center for Liturgy, Washington, 

DC (2001). 
Douglas W. Marcouiller, S.J., teaches economics at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, 

MA (2000). 
G. Ronald Murphy, S.J., teaches German language and literature at Georgetown 

University, Washington, DC (2001). 
Thomas R O'Malley, S.J., is associate dean of arts and sciences and teaches in the 

honors program at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (2000). 
Thomas P. Rausch, S.J., teaches theology at Loyola Marymount University, Los 

Angeles, CA (2002). 
William R. Rehg, S.J., teaches philosophy at St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO 


The opinions expressed in STUDIES are those of the individual authors thereof. 
Parentheses designate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 2003 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality- 
Publication Office Editorial Office 

Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits Faber House 

3601 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108 102 College Road 
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V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

I Instruction and Ordinance 

concerning the training of ours in the 

Sacred Liturgy 

Introduction by 
Lawrence J. Madden, SJ. 


35/2 ■ MARCH 2003 


Jesuits in Late Baroque Prague 
by Paul Shore 

Villains or heroes in the perspective of earlier 
writers, the Jesuits of eighteenth-century Bohe- 
mia, at that time ruled by the Habsburgs, played a 
large role in its life. Headquartered in Prague but 
working throughout the land, the Society directed 
schools and universities, gave the Spiritual Exer- 
cises, preached missions, promoted its Baroque 
aesthetic in architecture, sculpture, painting, and 
drama. Based on primary sources, some unseen for 
two hundred years, this book details the accom- 
plishments of Jesuit priests, brothers, teachers, 
scholars, and scientists in the intellectual and 
cultural life of the kingdom. 

Dr. Paul Shore is a member of the faculty at Saint 
Louis University in the Department of Educational 
Studies and the Department of History. 

xiii + 267 pp. + Index Institute of Jesuit Sources 

$22.95 paperback 3601 Lindell Blvd. 

ISBN 1-880810-46-8 St. Louis, MO 63108 

Tel: 314-977-7257 
Fax: 314-977-7263 

The first word . . . 

My first novitiate cassock may well have survived a saber charge during the 
Crimean War. Despite its slashed and rudely mended sleeves, its mysterious 
odors of battle and gray-green medallions sprinkled across the chest like so 
many battle citations with oak-leaf clusters, the uniform was a source of 
great pride in those sultry summer weeks immediately after habit day. 

One Sunday morning, wearing our "new" dress blacks, the column 
of green, untested troops marched into the basement of the chapel to audi- 
tion for the novice choir. One by one, we stood at attention, alone before 
the regiment, trying to match the notes the chantmaster conjured up on the 
piano as he tried to evaluate the ordnance he had on hand for the musical 
assault on the September vow day. It was my turn. As his left hand slid 
further down the keyboard, the choir director announced with the finality 
of a drumhead court-martial: "Second bass." Utterly ignorant of the lan- 
guage, I suspected some connection to Softball, the endless ordeal of candi- 
dacy that I hoped had passed from my life, along with the odious chorus of 
"Nice try, brother" after each strike-out or muffed grounder. 

Although I did not realize it at the time, the verdict had a far greater 
impact on my life than the battle-scarred cassock or the interminable soft- 
ball games. From that point on, my idea of singing consisted of a series of 
modulated rumbles punctuated by strategic belches and occasional grunts. 
If they could hear my shower-room rendition of "Ol' Man River," out of 
sheer envy Bryn Terfel and Samuel Ramey would never sing another note. 
(Not by self-delusion alone does man live, but it helps.) 

Aside from bathtub bravado, my placement in the tonal subcellar 
brought several other long-lasting consequences, some good, some not so 
good. It gave me the opportunity to sing in scholasticate choirs and even in 
an occasional octet. As one who never had a formal music lesson, I learned 
a bit about the wonders of polyphony and harmony from all those choir 
practices; and although I never really learned how to read notes, this frag- 
mentary knowledge has added immensely to my enjoyment of good music. 
I'm grateful. Singing probably helped my diction and projection as well, no 
small benefit in a day when speech and homiletics received scant attention 
in a curriculum largely dedicated to mz-verbs, the species impressa, and 

Now the bad news. From that point on I became progressively un- 
comfortable in any liturgical setting that featured communal singing. From 
my perspective, it seems obvious that most church and community choir 


directors and organists received their training with the Vienna Boys Choir. 
Tenors to a man, they show no mercy in their selection of hymns and keys. 
As creatures of the "Sixties" (as today's scholastics love to remind us), Jesuits 
of my vintage, survivors of the great liturgy wars of the past — Mass facing 
the people and Communion in the hand — can describe the course of liturgi- 
cal music as the triumph of Art Garfunkel over Pete Seeger. (If you don't 
know what that means, ask a jubilarian with sideburns.) Were it not for the 
itchy beard and mushroom hat, I would have seriously considered an 
Eastern rite, where liturgical music has remained in the hands of baritones, 
and tenors are confined to singing "It's a Small World after All" at some 
Greek or Russian version of Disneyland. 

Apparently discomfort with liturgy afflicts more than us singers of 
limited vocal range. The reforms of Vatican II came in thirty-five years ago, 
a full life span for most of God's children; and while we've adopted most of 
the externals by this time, we still need a bit of reflection from time to time 
on our liturgical mind-set. Why is it that so many of us seem — from all 
appearances, at least — to feel "discomfort" with some elements of liturgical 
prayer and as a result often form a bloc of passive resistance? 

I don't know the answer. I do think we could clarify the question a 
bit if we could disentangle three separate value systems that frequently 
collide, overlap, and muddy the waters. We think we're talking about the 
same thing, but we're speaking different languages, with the obvious result. 
As Paul Newman, lying on the ground and beaten to the consistency of a 
stewed tomato, put it in Cool Hand Luke, "What we have here is a failure to 
communicate." No wonder we give up in frustration and keep doing what 
we're doing — as long as it's comfortable. Let's look at the three value sys- 
tems in turn. 

First, for many Jesuits liturgy is an expression of personal spirituality. 
For them "saying Mass" is a private affair. It's important to vest, to handle 
the elements, to express the intention of a specific donor, and control the 
rhythm of the celebration. Some older Jesuits who continue to reduce 
liturgy to the rigid observance of rubrics and some younger men who 
harbor nostalgic fantasies about the inevitable restoration of the maniple 
fear that another presider or celebrant may violate their deeply cherished 
values. The horror stories of the 1960s have entered into the oral tradition 
and left their mark on our collective psyche; and in some instances they 
have induced a form of liturgical paralysis in the scrupulous. Flying solo 
avoids the risk of a foolhardy copilot. 

For Jesuits of this mind-set, celebrating regularly for a congregation 
(which some do quite enthusiastically) means inviting others to attend "my 
Mass." These men find concelebrating an annoyance, except for special 
occasions — like funerals. Attending Mass "like an ordinary layperson" and 
receiving the Eucharist from the hand of another priest seem almost a 
compromise of one's own sacerdotal identity. The number of private Mass 


rooms that remain in use in many of our residences and the difficulty we 
find in gathering for community liturgy on a regular basis suggest that we 
still, after three score and seven years, have a lot of work to do on thinking 
and talking about the priestly role in liturgical celebration. 

Second, at the opposite end of the values spectrum, some Jesuits 
place such weight on the public nature of liturgy that they unwittingly 
think in terms of presentation, as though we were involved in a form of 
ritual rhetoric. "Good" liturgy means elaborate music (whether or not any- 
one can sing it), innovative variations in the texts, vestments, decor, and 
rubrics — and, of course, a homily worthy of Newman or Bossuet. In short, 
the concept of ceremony veers dangerously close to performance. This 
frame of mind leads to several unintended consequences. The professionals 
(that is, the generous people who take responsibility for community litur- 
gies) feel unfairly put upon to outdo themselves whenever they undertake 
planning a ceremony. Preparing even an ordinary community Mass can 
become a time-consuming burden, as they feel compelled to come up with 
something elaborate and innovative. They can find only frustration when 
others fail to appreciate their long hours of preparation and simply don't 
show up. 

In turn, those of us with more modest presentational skills can feel 
intimidated or even resentful as the professionals demonstrate their skill 
and our theological and pastoral inadequacies. Do I overstate the case? Ask 
yourself, have you ever heard a tasteless joke that begins: How do you tell 
the difference between a terrorist and a systematic theologian? Or a Chris- 
tian ethicist? Or a church historian? But a liturgist, that's another matter. 

Third, many Jesuits see liturgy as an expression of community. In 
some residences Jesuits with this value perception become puzzled, disap- 
pointed, and angry in turn when a community provides neither time nor 
place for a daily or at least regular celebration. And if the community does, 
they are amazed at how few people participate, even occasionally. The 
explanation that Jesuits are too busy and have too diverse schedules to 
have a daily community Mass rings as hollow as a cracked sacring bell. 
Seven days a week? Even God took off one day in the week of creation, 
when presumably he was quite busy with his work. People organize their 
days and weeks around what's important to them. 

Jesuits with this value in the ascendancy have high tolerance for 
spontaneity and even a bit of messiness. Silent reflection on the lectionary 
readings in the presence of others counts as much as a stirring homily. No 
one has to prepare music or innovative rituals for them. Being there is 
enough. They grow envious when they hear of other houses where a com- 
munity liturgy is part of the daily routine, and most people attend at least 
on occasion. They will no doubt find an ally in Fr. Janssens when he re- 
minds his readers — I paraphrase — Don't tell me it can't work because it has 
worked. But, alas, in houses other than theirs. 


All three of the groups I've caricatured here have an enormous 
contribution to make to our liturgical thinking and practice. The problem is 
that most of the time they have great difficulty in appreciating the values 
and concerns of the other two groups. 

Perhaps we place too much of a burden on liturgy. The first group 
may see "their Mass" as the one remaining key to their personal spirituality 
at those times when daily meditation, examen, and breviary recede into the 
background. The second group may see liturgical celebration as embodying 
the joy, enthusiasm, and creativity that at times may be lacking from the 
inevitable routines of the ministerial life. And the third might see it as a 
panacea for all the stresses of community life. In fact, it's none of these. But 
what is it, and how does it fit into the life of an active — that is to say, non- 
monastic — Jesuit? 

This is not a new question, as this current issue of Studies demon- 
strates so poignantly. In the years before the reforms of Vatican II, Father 
General Janssens tried to help us begin our own liturgical reform. History 
might assist us to gain some perspective on our current situation. In the 
pages that follow, we are invited to go back even before those terrible 
arguments about banjo Masses, lay ministers, concelebration, the Dutch 
Canon, vernacular, offertory processions, and a dozen other issues that 
seem so quaint today but were so traumatic then. We solved most of the 
practical problems — or at least learned to live with them — but as Father 
Janssens suggested so well in 1959, we still have to work on our attitudes. 
He characterized his task as inviting us to "consider how the Society should 
in accord with its institute, foster that active participation in the Sacred 
Liturgy which the Instruction of the Sacred Congregation demands of all 
the faithful, but especially of clerics and religious." Nearly fifty years later 
we're still working on the same project. At least we should be, even if it's 

Richard A. Blake, SJ. 




Introduction to the Instruction and Ordinance 

by Lawrence J. Madden, S.J. 


I. Introduction 9 

1. Decree of the XXX General Congregation — Instruction 

of the Sacred Congregation of Rites 9 

2. Norms Previously Established 10 

3. Importance and Urgency of the Matter 12 

II. The Mind of Saint Ignatius on the Sacred Liturgy 13 

4. Clear from the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitutions — 

Exclusion of Choir 13 

5. Historical Notes about the Choir of St. Ignatius' Time 14 

6. Development of the Liturgy and St. Ignatius' Role Therein 16 

III. The Teaching of the Church and of Saint Ignatius 20 

7. Definition and Description of the Liturgy 20 

8. Internal and External Elements 21 

9. Contribution of the Sacred Liturgy to the Spiritual Life 23 

10. Private Piety and the Sacred Liturgy 24 

11. The Liturgical Year 27 

12. Apostolic Purpose of the Liturgy and of the Society 30 

IV. Sacred Music 32 

13. Sacred Music and the Liturgy 32 

14. A Means for Divine Worship 32 

15. Pre-eminence of the Gregorian Chant 33 

16. Church Regulations about the Gregorian Chant 33 

17. Pre-eminence of the Solemn Mass 34 


viii * Lawrence J. Madden, S J. 

V. Conclusion 34 

18. Faithful Adherence to the Mind of the Church 34 


I. Introduction 35 

1. Need of Knowledge, Appreciation, and Practice 

of the Sacred Liturgy 35 

2. Consequent Need of Formation and Training 36 

3. Note on the Oriental Rites 37 

Summary of the Rest of the Ordinance 38 

by Lawrence J. Madden, S.J. 

Topics for Community Discussion 39 


Lawrence J. Madden, S. J., received his doctorate in theology and 
diploma in sacred liturgy at the University of Trier, Germany. He 
has served as director of campus ministry and adjunct professor 
of theology at Georgetown University. Founder and director of 
the Georgetown Center for Liturgy since 1981, he has been an 
advisor to the Bishops' Committee on the Liturgy, a member of 
the North American Academy of Liturgy, and pastor of Holy 
Trinity Parish in Washington. He is editor of The Awakening 
Church: The State of Liturgy in the U.S. Twenty-Five Years after the 
Second Vatican Council's Refonns (Liturgical Press, 1991). 

The Georgetown Center for Liturgy is a center for educa- 
tion, research, and consultation for American Catholic parishes, 
with "A Transformed Church through a Renewed Liturgy" as its 
mission. Its offices are at 3513 N Street NW; Washington, DC 

The Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy 
by Very Reverend John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

An Introduction 

by Lawrence J. Madden, S.J. 

For six days in June 2002, 120 Jesuits from forty-five countries 
met in Rome at the invitation of Father General Peter-Hans 
Kolvenbach to discuss the status of the Sacred Liturgy in the 
life of the Society and in our apostolate. During the meeting Father 
General expressed his desire to write to the whole Society in the 
near future on the Sacred Liturgy. In his address to the assembly on 
the first day of that meeting, Father General recalled for the group 
the numerous times in recent history when a superior general had 
addressed the Society on this topic. One of those communications, 
written by Father General John Baptist Janssens and issued on 
Christmas Day 1959, was entitled Instruction and Ordinance concerning 
the Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy. 

The members of the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality believe that 
Fr. Janssens' instruction could provide fruitful reading for today's 
Jesuits and might prompt useful discussion in our communities as 
we await the promised communication from Fr. Kolvenbach. Hence 
this publication. Fr. Janssens' communication is divided into two 
parts, an instruction and an ordinance. The instruction is printed 
here in full. Since much of the ordinance does not apply to present 
liturgical conditions, it has been edited and most of it has been 
summarized. Two sets of questions for small-group community 
discussions have been included at the end. The first set is appropri- 
ate after a preliminary reading of the document; the second can be 
used to facilitate a reflection on our experience of Jesuit-community 
Liturgy with an eye to improving it. 

Written four years before the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy 
of Vatican Council II (Sacrosanctum Concilium) and all the subsequent 
legislation that effected the dramatic changes in Catholic worship 


2 <0> Lawrence J. Madden, S.J. 

that we have experienced, the instruction, when read today, still 
sounds a contemporary, up-to-date note. Although many details of 
the ordinance are dated because liturgical practice has dramatically 
changed since its composition, the instruction itself, through the key 
ideas it presents, reminds us that Vatican II did not create full-blown 
liturgical reforms unassisted; indeed, the reformers of the modern 
liturgical movement, including popes and Vatican dicasteries, had for 
many years been preparing the ground. Unfortunately, the spiritual- 
ity of most Jesuits in 1959 was not significantly influenced by the 
movement. Despite the many references Fr. Janssens could make to 
letters by previous Fathers General to the Society on the subject of 
the Liturgy and to various papal encyclicals on the same topic, it is 
obvious that a very long time is required for any change to take 
place in the Church's or the Society's spirituality and pious practices. 

Younger Jesuits whose spiritual lives were formed after Vati- 
can II might find it difficult to appreciate how forward-thinking 
Father Janssens' letter was, because they have had no experience of 
Catholic spirituality prior to the council. To help them grasp the 
context in which it was written and to remind older Jesuits where 
we have come from spiritually and devotionally, I will attempt to 
give a brief description of the spiritual world of most American 
Catholics in 1959. 

The average Catholic conceived of the Church as consisting of 
the pope, the bishops, the priests, and, in a less official way, the 
religious brothers and sisters. It was seen as an organization to 

which the layperson belonged; it 
—■———-—— — - told Catholics what God wanted 

The Catholic's spiritual world them to do and jt su PP lied " the 

1 j u • j means of salvation.' 7 The institu- 

zvas colored by various devo- . , , , , , 

. . r . . -. . honal church was our holy moth- 

tions. It is no exaggeration to . . . . J , . 

A , „°S ,. er, and through her and only 

say that many Catholics tl , , . , . ,, „ .- ,/ 

u ,F . through her might the Catholic 

spent more time praying to ,. ° r rU . * ^ j lx 

J\ , , , . listen for the voice of God. It was 

Mary and to the other saints ^ ?x[ ^ job tQ evangelize the 

than they did to God. WQrld/ and even a forward . looking 

_ - ^_^^^^_^ — ^^^^^^^ movement like Catholic Action 

was officially described as "the 
participation of the laity in the apostolate of the hierarchy." Loyalty and 
obedience to the Church marked the good Catholic, accompanied by 
a serious effort to "preserve one's faith" in a society often viewed as 

Introduction to The Training of Ours in the Liturgy O 3 

hostile to the Catholic Church. The election of a Catholic, John F. 
Kennedy, in 1960 offered Catholics in the United States a dramatic 
change of perspective on the secular world. 

Faithful Catholics' purpose in life was to build up grace in 
their souls in the hope that they would die in the state of grace and 
thus gain eternal salvation. Catholics were a well-instructed group; 
they knew the Baltimore Catechism, and they knew what had to be 
done to save their souls: They were to attend Mass on Sundays and 
holydays of obligation, receive Holy Communion frequently, contrib- 
ute to the support and defense of the Church, educate their children 
in the faith, and be particularly careful to observe the sixth and 
ninth commandments. If one fell into mortal sin, which was not 
difficult to do, one was supposed to get to confession as quickly as 

The Catholic's spiritual world was colored by various devo- 
tions. It is no exaggeration to say that many Catholics spent more 
time praying to Mary and to the other saints than they did to God. 
The rosary was very popular, as were novenas to the saints and to 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The rosary and novena prayers were 
usually recited privately, but occasionally even communally during 

The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was looked upon as a sacred 
act that brought the Real Presence of Christ to earth through the 
ministry of the ordained priest for the purpose of Holy Communion. 
There was little awareness of Christ's presence in the assembly or in 
the Scriptures proclaimed there. The Mass was celebrated in Latin; 
on Sundays the Gospel was sometimes repeated in English before 
the sermon, which was usually doctrinal or devotional and rarely 
referred to the Scripture readings of the day. Apart from hymns 
occasionally sung at various parts of the Mass (whose texts were not 
permitted to be exact translations of the Latin of the Mass), the 
atmosphere was one of silent adoration, punctuated by bells at 
various key moments during the Canon, especially at the Consecra- 
tion. It was the occasion for private devotion in the company of 
many others. 

On most weekdays when a saint's feast was not commemo- 
rated, the priest offered a requiem Mass in black vestments, often 
erroneously referred to in ecclesial shorthand as a "black Mass." 
Occasionally, and in some parishes frequently, these Masses for the 

4 <> Lawrence J. Madden, S.J. 

dead were sung. (A more substantial stipend was expected for a 
sung Mass.) 

When Catholics addressed God in prayer, they almost always 
prayed to Christ, very rarely to the Father, and almost never to the 
Holy Spirit. The classic Trinitarian prayer formulas were not found 
in popular piety. The Christ addressed in prayer would have been 
imagined as Jesus of Nazareth as he was when he walked the earth. 
The glorified Christ, as Head of his Mystical Body, would not have 
been commonly understood. 

The feasts of the Church year that elicited the most involve- 
ment were Christmas, Holy Thursday, and Good Friday. With deep 
devotion Catholics celebrated these feasts, with their focus respec- 
tively on the infant Jesus at Bethlehem, the loving Christ of the Last 
Supper, the suffering Christ on Calvary. But it seems strange to us 
now that the two greatest feasts of the Christian year, Easter and 
Pentecost, did not engage Catholic piety to such an extent. 

Sacraments were regarded as the means to receive sanctifying 
grace understood in an almost quantitative way. Baptism gave grace 
and removed the stain of sin from the soul. Most Catholics saw little 
connection between baptism and Easter. One would not be sur- 
prised to find more enthusiasm for 

the annual May procession in 

honor of the Mother of God than 
[Mystici Corporis] teaches f or the Holy Saturday Vigil, which 

clearly that the Spirit has for years had been celebrated 

been sent into Christ's early on Saturday morning with 

Church to invest it with white vestments, even though 

Christ's life and to inhabit Lent did not end until Saturday 

the various members, so that noon! 

together they might build up At M ass, since few actually 
the Body in Christian love followed the structured prayer of 
through their individual the Eucharistic Liturgy by using a 
charisms. missal, Communion could be dis- 
tributed at any time without seem- 
ing disruptive. It was not an un- 
common practice at crowded Masses for a second priest to enter 
from the sacristy and begin distributing Communion after the Sanc- 
tus. To modify this practice, in his instruction Fr. Janssens recom- 
mends that the brothers should receive only after the priest's Com- 

Introduction to The Training of Ours in the Liturgy <0> 5 

munion. 1 Before this instruction it was the common practice for the 
brothers to receive Communion at the beginning of Mass, so that 
they would have time to make their thanksgiving after Communion 
during the Mass and would be able to leave after the priest's Com- 
munion to prepare breakfast for the community. 

Catholic prayer was almost exclusively a personal matter 
between God and the individual. It was characterized by profound 
adoration at Mass and at benediction and by devout petition and 
reparation in novenas and other devotions. Novenas were designed 
to produce results, to secure answers to prayers; those that seemed 
to work best gained the greatest popularity. Devotion to the Sacred 
Heart, promoted very effectively by the Society of Jesus, sometimes 
had its central focus — God's great 

love for us shown in Jesus ^ — — 
Christ— overshadowed by the de- ma t makes the instruction 
votional desire to make reparation sound contemporary is the 
to the Sacred Heart, wounded by central themes that Fr. Jans- 
our sms. sens stresses, some of which 

Catholic people prayed vo- were to reappear as central 
cally together, that is, as a Church, ideas in the Constitution on 
primarily at devotions and at the Sacred Liturgy of Vatican R 
benediction of the Blessed Sacra- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
ment. Although there was no ex- 
plicit understanding of themselves as the people of God, united in 
the Spirit, offering praise and thanksgiving with Christ their Head, 
implicitly they did have a deep sense of their unity with God and 
their unity in the Church. Catholic spirituality was different from 
what has developed since Vatican II; but while we celebrate the 
recovery of the Liturgy as the core of Christian spirituality, we 
cannot forget that the Church, prior to Vatican II, produced genera- 
tions of great and holy Christians. 

In 1959 some Jesuits were acquainted with the liturgical move- 
ment and were doing their best to pray the Mass by following the 
priest with the missal. The revolution in biblical studies had begun 
to make itself felt in our seminaries. Despite these important signs of 
progress, the Catholic spirituality described above was still firmly 

See p. 11 below. 

6 ^ Lawrence J. Madden, S.J. 

planted not only in the laity but in the members of the Society of 

In writing his instruction Fr. Janssens was able to rely on a 
number of key documents that marked milestones in the Church's 
journey of liturgical renewal, notably three encyclicals of Pius XII, 
Mystici Corporis (1943), Mediator Dei (1947), and Musicae sacree discipli- 
na (1955), as well as the Sacred Congregation of Rites' instruction De 
musica sacra et Sacra Liturgia (1958). 

Although Mystici Corporis was in part an attempt to correct 
certain tendencies in ecclesiology, it is primarily a document that 
presents a doctrinal view of the Church as the Body of Christ. It 
teaches clearly that the Spirit has been sent into Christ's Church to 
invest it with Christ's life and to inhabit the various members, so 
that together they might build up the Body in Christian love 
through their individual charisms. To Catholics who were accus- 
tomed to think of the Church primarily in external terms, the em- 
phasis on the internal communion that constitutes the Church was a 
revelation. It might shock someone brought up in today's ecumenical 
spirit to note that the encyclical identified the Mystical Body of 
Christ with the Roman Catholic Church. This position was qualified 
by Vatican II's Lumen gentium, which recognized that, although the 
Church of Christ "subsists" in the Catholic Church, many elements 
of truth and sanctification were to be found outside its visible con- 

Mediator Dei gave an official blessing and a charter to the 
modern liturgical movement that had begun in the early years of the 
twentieth century. The document critiqued the excesses of some 
promoters of the liturgical movement, but its main purpose was a 
presentation of a theology of the Liturgy and an explanation of the 
principles that underlay its celebration. The document taught that 
through the Liturgy the Church continues Christ's priestly mission of 
reconciliation; it is the public worship of the whole Mystical Body, 
head and members. In the Eucharist the laity, through their baptis- 
mal priesthood, offer themselves with Christ through the ordained 
priest. Full participation by the laity in the celebration of the Liturgy, 
therefore, became essential. 

The encyclical also urged greater participation of the laity in 
the Office (Liturgy of the Hours), since it is the prayer of the Mysti- 
cal Body. It also pointed out that in the Church year, it is Christ 

Introduction to The Training of Ours in the Liturgy ^ 7 

himself who is brought to us to relive his mysteries in his members 
and thus to transform them into himself. Finally, pious exercises 
were not seen to be in conflict with the Liturgy as long as they led 
to a more fervent celebration of the Liturgy itself. 

Fr. Janssens begins his instruction by quoting the wish of the 
Thirtieth General Congregation that "in the spirit of the Church, 
provision be made that Ours may acquire from the beginning of the 
religious life and throughout its course a fuller understanding of and 
a greater devotion to the Sacred Liturgy so that, in the spirit of our 
holy founder St. Ignatius, we may be able 'to serve Our Lord and his 
Spouse the Church more perfectly.'" 

What makes the instruction sound contemporary is the central 
themes that Fr. Janssens stresses, some of which were to reappear as 
central ideas in the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of Vatican II. 
Some of the language may be different, but issues like the impor- 
tance of active participation in the Liturgy, the need for it to be 
interior as well as exterior, and the importance of music in the 
Liturgy are central to the letter. The document stresses the need to 
train Jesuits in both liturgical spirituality and in music, and reminds 
us that competence to celebrate the Liturgy well is a vital tool of our 

In 1959, of course, no one expected that the Church would 
enjoy a vernacular Liturgy in the near future, so efforts to increase 
people's participation meant their learning the Latin responses of the 
Mass and becoming adept at singing the simpler Gregorian chants. 
Apart from the ministries of music 

and service at the altar (by boys ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
only), one does not find mention 

of the extensive lay liturgical min- Faculty or spiritual guides 

istry by men and women that is a hardly mentioned that the 

remarkable feature of our contem- Liturgy should be seen and 

porary Church. entered into as the prime 

Fr. Janssens' main appeal to source °f Christian Jesuit 

the members of the Society was to spirituality. 

their Jesuit call to be men of the _ ______ ______ 

Church and faithful followers of 

Ignatius, who should take the Church's liturgical teachings and 
regulations seriously and implement them with devotion and fideli- 
ty. To accomplish this he mandated the preparation of liturgical 

8 <$> Lawrence J. Madden, S.J. 

experts in the Society who would assist superiors as they imple- 
mented the training of Jesuits at every stage of their formation. He 
also described in great detail how Jesuits should foster the liturgical 
life of all those they served. The general felt it necessary to assure 
Jesuits that they could banish "any fear that by cultivating the 
Sacred Liturgy, according to the mind of the Church, they are 
departing from the spirit of our holy Founder, or are adopting the 
monastic forms that he rejected for apostolic motives/' 2 

It is difficult to evaluate in any exact way the impact of this 
letter on Jesuit life or to estimate whether it enjoyed any significant 
success in improving the state of the Liturgy in our houses, schools, 
colleges, and missions. It certainly gave heart to those Jesuits who 
were involved in the liturgical-renewal movement; and to some 
extent, I suspect, it persuaded superiors to encourage a significant 
number of young Jesuits in the 1960s and early 1970s to complete 
doctoral studies in Liturgy. But there was no serious liturgical train- 
ing given to this writer during his theological studies in the early 
1960s, nor did the quality of our seminary liturgies reflect a deep- 
ened understanding of the Liturgy. Faculty or spiritual guides hardly 
mentioned that the Liturgy should be seen and entered into as the 
prime source of Christian Jesuit spirituality. That awareness has 
taken many years to be articulated and still has not been fully 
integrated into Jesuit spirituality. 


See p. 19 below. 

Instruction and Ordinance 

concerning the training of ours 

in the Sacred Liturgy 

by the Very Reverend 
John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 


I. Introduction 

1. Decree of the Thirtieth General Congregation — 
Instruction of the Sacred Congregation of Rites 

As I have already said in the letter I addressed to the whole 
Society De praecipuis laboribus Congregationis Generalis XXX, the con- 
gregation expressed the wish that, in the spirit of the Church, 
provision be made that Ours may acquire from the beginning of the 
religious life and throughout its course a fuller understanding of and 
a greater devotion to the Sacred Liturgy, so that, in the spirit of our 
holy founder St. Ignatius, we may be able "to serve our Lord and his 
Spouse the Church more perfectly." 1 The congregation expressed 
this wish in its sixteenth decree, no. 4, which "entrusted to Father 
General the task of seeing how and within what limitations accord- 
ing to the mind of St. Ignatius the liturgical training of Ours should 
be fostered from the novitiate onward." 2 

That the treatment of this subject was timely was proved by 
the promulgation of the Instructio de musica sacra et Sacra Liturgia by 

The original Latin version of this document appeared in Acta Romana 
(ActRom) 13, no. 5 (1959): 638-75. The English translation, slightly edited here, was 
provided by Woodstock College in 1960. 

1 ActRom 13:241 (vol. 13, p. 241). 

2 Ibid., 313. 

10 ^ V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

the Sacred Congregation of Rites on September 3, 1958, 3 with the 
special approval and authoritative confirmation of Pope Pius XII. 
This instruction arranged in order and clarified more precisely the 
chief and most important points of the papal documents that had 
treated both these topics during the last ten years. The task en- 
trusted to me by the Thirtieth General Congregation was thereby 
rendered easier in one way; but yet it can be called harder, since it 
demands that I make all of Ours more earnestly attentive to the 
mind of our Holy Mother the Church about the Sacred Liturgy. I 
must, at the same time, consider how the Society should, in accord 
with its Institute, foster that active participation in the Sacred Liturgy 
which the instruction of the sacred congregation demands of all the 
faithful, but especially of clerics and religious. 

2. Norms Previously Established 

Heretofore there has been no lack of direction on the part of 

the Fathers General, keeping pace 
■^ ^— ^— with the renewed interest in the 

Sacred Liturgy. As far back as the 
year 1922, my esteemed predeces- 
sor issued a letter "De sacra 
liturgica pro nostra vitae rarione 
peragenda" 4 and ten years later 
another "De spiritu sacra? liturgiae 
in nostris templis et operibus 
impensius promovendo." f In the 
latter he set himself to answer the 
doubts which had been presented 
by some provinces. Very Reverend 
Father Ledochowski reminded us 
that "the Holy See desires a more 
intimate participation in the Lit- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^_^_^^^ urgy on me P art °f me faithful, 

and that consequently the mem- 
bers of the Society, according to the spirit of its founder, should 

I tried to make clear how 
deficient in his duty the 
Jesuit would be who, 
in performing the Liturgy, 
would change or omit or per- 
form carelessly the prescribed 
ceremonies, or who would 
neglect the spirit and deep 
understanding that are 
engendered by study and 
meditation, and would assist 
or participate in it 
in body only. 

''Acta Apostolic* Sedis (ActAposSed) 50 (1958): 630-663. 
[ ActRom 3:475. 
'ibid., 7:227. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <$> 11 

comply with the slightest wish of the Holy See and gladly with all 
their power promote the liturgical life correctly understood accord- 
ing to the mind of the Church/' 6 

Following his example, in Epistola de vita interiore fovenda, I 
exhorted Ours not to be fearful of straying from the safe path when 
they nourish their life of prayer from other books of the Sacred 
Scripture than the Gospels or from the texts of the Sacred Liturgy. 7 1 
endeavored to point out the same path in the instruction De assidua 
sacree Scripturee lectione, 8 and in the letter De fratribus coadjutoribus, 
urging that the brothers be more 

thoroughly instructed in the doc- — ■— ■■ — ^^^^^^^^— 
trine of the Mystical Body of I exhorted Ours not to be 

Christ, of grace, the sacraments, fearful of straying 

and the Liturgy. And I urged that fwm fhe safe path whm they 

they be allowed to receive Holy nourish their life of prayer 

Communion during the Mass at fmm other books 

the priests Communion, since r . y r JO . . . y 

„ . . r , of the Sacred Scripture than 

this practice is more in confor- ^ ^ » * ^ 

.. .,, L i • - L r «_, ^i i the Gospels or from the texts 

mity with the spirit of the Church r . Af / . _ #jt 

J i i.u i.u • c i. u in i of the Sacred Liturgy. 

and with the meaning or the Holy J ^ 

Sacrifice itself, in which those ^^^^^^^^— ^^^^^^^^_ 
present associate themselves with 

the priest by partaking of the same Victim. /,9 In the letter De ramo 
orientali Societatis, I treated somewhat more fully the question so 
often proposed, whether we must say that the cultivation of the 
Liturgy is rather outside the scope of our Institute. I tried to make 
clear how deficient in his duty the Jesuit would be who, in perform- 
ing the Liturgy, would change or omit or perform carelessly the 
prescribed ceremonies, or who would neglect the spirit and deep 
understanding that are engendered by study and meditation, and 
would assist or participate in it in body only. One who does not love 
the Church's Liturgy does not properly love the Church herself. 10 

6 ibid. 

7 ActRom 11:171. 

8 Ibid., 262 ff. 

9 Ibid, 517 f.; see also ibid., 13:443; Pius XII, "Mediator Dei," ActAposSed 39 
(1947): 565. Hereafter this source will be referred to as MedDei, with the appropriate 
page in the ActAposSed, vol. 39. 

10 See ActRom 11:887-901. 

12 ^ V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

3. Importance and Urgency of the Matter 

Now I am compelled to exhort you more earnestly to comply 
whole-heartedly as well with the more recent ordinances and laws 
of the Holy See "to the glory of God and the good of the universal 
Church. ,,n 

I am inclined to think the complaint is applicable to the Soci- 
ety that "in some places appreciation, understanding, and zeal for 
the Sacred Liturgy are at times deficient" 12 — not indeed, because of a 
lack of obedience, but because of a certain preconceived idea that in 
this matter we had to make a choice between the spirit of the Lit- 
urgy and that of the Society, between the monastic and the apostolic 
life, between a regard for internal and external prayer, between the 
mind of St. Ignatius and the norms of the Holy See. It is no secret 
that up to now due account has not everywhere been taken of that 
renewal of the Sacred Liturgy which our Holy Mother the Church 
has so insistently promoted in our times. 13 This instruction of mine is 
based chiefly upon the documents of the Supreme Pontiffs and of 
the Holy See, especially upon the encyclical Mediator Dei. u 

See the "Preamble to the Declarations and the Observations about the 
Constitutions," in The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary Norms 
(ConsCN; St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1996), C: no. 136 (p. 58). 

12 MedDei 524. 


"If we compare the present state of the liturgical movement with what it 
was thirty years ago, we see that it has made undeniable progress both in breadth 
and depth. The interest shown in the liturgy, the practical achievements, and the 
participation of the faithful have assumed a development which it would have been 
hard to foresee at that time" (Pius XII, Allocution to the International Congress of 
Pastoral Liturgy, ActAposSed 48:711). 

"[The liturgical movement] has thus appeared as a sign of the providential 
designs of God upon the present time, as a passing of the Holy Spirit through his 
Church to bring men closer to the mysteries of faith and the riches of grace which 
flow from the active participation of the faithful in the liturgical life" (ibid., 712). 


MedDei, 521-600; also the following: S. Pii X, "De musica sacra" Acta Sanctee 
Sedis (ActSancSed) 36 (1903), 329-39, 387-95; "Decretum de quotidiana SS. Eucharistiae 
sumptione," ActAposSed 38 (1905): 400-406; Pii XI, apostolic constitution "Divini 
cultus" (Div.cult), ActAposSed XXI (1929): 33-41; Pii XII, encyclical "Mystici Corporis," 
ActAposSed 35 (1943): 193-248; allocution of Nov. 2, 1954, ActAposSed 46 (1954): 666-77; 
encyclical "Musicae sacrae disciplina" (Mus. sac. disc), ActAposSed 48 (1955): 5-25; 
allocution of Sept. 22, 1956, ActAposSed 47 (1956): 711-25; Sacred Congregation of 
Rites, "Instructio de musica sacra et Sacra Liturgia" (Mus. sac), ActAposSed 50 (1958): 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy -O 13 

The first or historical part examines the mind of our holy 
founder with regard to the Liturgy as it is gathered from his writings 
and from other documents. The teaching of the Church about the 
Sacred Liturgy is then compared with the tradition of the Society 
about the spiritual life and is submitted to a brief examination. Third, 
a few words are said about the connection between sacred chant 
and the Sacred Liturgy; a conclusion is added about thinking in full 
accord with our Holy Mother the Church. 

This instruction is followed by an ordinance which sets forth 
the principal norms of the Sacred Congregation of Rites that are to 
be followed in the practice of the whole Society. These norms are 
inserted in the text for the sake of convenience. 

II. The Mind of Our Holy Father St. Ignatius 
concerning the Sacred Liturgy 

4. Clear from the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitutions: 
Exclusion of Choir 

We can easily gather the mind of our holy founder from his 
words and his example, and from the norms he established in the 
Constitutions and in the Spiritual Exercises, especially if we also bear 
in mind the conditions of his time. 

St. Ignatius gave a clear indication of his great esteem and love 
for the Liturgy when he was staying at Manresa: "Every day he 
attended the principal Mass and vespers and compline, deriving 
great consolation from them/' 15 It is not surprising that by the name 
"Spiritual Exercises" he wishes to indicate "every method of mental 
or vocal prayer." 16 Indeed, he considered liturgical prayer an integral 
part of the Exercises. For when he insists that the exercitant will 
make greater progress in the spiritual life the more he withdraws 
from friends and acquaintances and from all anxiety about human 

Fontes narrativi (Font.narr), vols. 66, 73, 85, and 93 of the series Monumenta 
historica Societatis Iesu (MHSI; Rome: Historical Institute S.J., 1943-65), 1:391 n. 20. 

Annotation 1, in The Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius of Loyola (SpEx), trans, 
and notes by George E. Ganss, S.J. (St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1992), l v2 
(p. 21). 

14 <$> V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

affairs, he expressly adds, "He should be altogether free to go out to 
matins or Mass, or to hear vespers whenever he pleases. 17 

But why had St. Ignatius understood that in the Society the 
recitation of the Office in choir was not according to God's will? 
"Since occupations that are undertaken for the aid of souls are of 
great importance and are proper to our Institute and are very nu- 
merous; since, too, our dwelling in this or that place is so uncertain, 

Ours shall not make use of choir 
— — ^^^^^^— ^^^^^^— for the singing of the canonical 

It is plain that the "work Hours or Masses and other ° ffic - 

of God" consuming so much es ' ■ ■ : ° urs ' however, should en- 

. . , j , ? j i Sage in works which are more 

time could be performed only ° ° , 

, , . rt . t -. proper to our vocation for the 

by chiefly contemplative \ i L ^ j "is t* 

j i • f * m 3 greater glory of God. The rea- 

orders, which, founded rU ° , .. ^_ 

e ' J , son, therefore, was apostolic: that 

for that purpose, were less fa tQ Qurs shou , d be ied 

occupied in apostolic work. altogether in apostolic labors, es- 

^_^^^^^_^^^^^^^__. pecially in preaching, teaching 

Christian doctrine, hearing confes- 
sions, and administering other sacraments, and in defending and 
spreading the faith wherever they are needed. 19 In other words, St. 
Ignatius finds the apostolic reason in the freedom proper to the 
pursuit of the more universal good, which freedom would be cur- 
tailed by the stability of abode and the great expenditure of time in 
celebrating the liturgy that would be indispensably required by 
communities obliged to choir. 

5. Historical Notes about the Choir of St. Ignatius's Time 

We can scarcely appreciate this reason fully unless we consider 
the form of the Divine Office which religious of the time used to 
chant in choir before the reform promulgated by St. Pius V in 1568. 
It was customary to add extra prayers to an already lengthy Office. 
Thus, to the Office of the day the community used to add the whole 
Office of the Dead, which was chanted for deceased benefactors; in 
addition, for living benefactors they sang the fifteen Gradual Psalms 

Annota. 20 (ibid., 20 v3 ' 4 [p. 20]). 


ConsCN, C: 586 (p. 256). 
19 "Formula Instituti"; ConsCN, C: 636-54 (pp. 294-98). 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <fr 15 

before matins and the seven Penitential Psalms after prime; the Little 
Office of the Blessed Virgin would be added merely out of devotion. 
The chief place in the Office as a whole was occupied by the con- 
ventual Mass in a still unrevised form, embellished by excessively 
complicated chant and abounding in unduly prolonged sequences; it 
was scarcely completed within three hours. 

It is plain that the "work of God" consuming so much time 
could be performed only by chiefly contemplative orders, which, 
founded for that purpose, were less occupied in apostolic work. 
Now, St. Ignatius ardently desired for his followers the apostolic life 
with no involvement in the monastic. Hence, in his order, the Office 
should be shorter; therefore it should be recited in private. The Mass 
should be simpler; hence, for the most part, though not always, 20 it 
should be a low Mass. 

The knowledge and love of the Liturgy is one thing, the 
practice of choir, another. St. Ignatius cherished the Liturgy, but he 
did not wish to have choir in the Society. Omitting other indications 
that show how well disposed he was towards all liturgical functions, 
we perceive his attitude in the third rule for thinking with the 
Church. It is "to praise the frequent hearing of Mass, the singing of 
hymns, psalms, and long prayers, whether in the church or outside; 
likewise the hours arranged at fixed times for the whole Divine 
Office, for every kind of prayer, and for the canonical hours." 21 


Of these lengthy functions St. Ignatius altogether excluded only the daily 
Office in choir with the conventual Mass. But whenever he felt that some liturgical 
solemnities would aid the apostolate, he permitted and, according to Fr. Polanco, 
even ordered them to be sung on Sundays and feasts, but in the way customary in 
the stricter religious orders, without elaborate and ritual chant, but "in a devotional, 
pleasing, and simple tone" (C: 586 f. (p. 256); Juan de Polanco, S.J., Vita Ignatii Loiolee 
et rerum Societatis Iesu historia, 6 vols., vols. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 of MHSI (Madrid, 1894- 
98), 5:33; Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., Commentarii de Instituto Societatis Iesu, vol. 90 of MHSI 
(Rome: Historical Institute S.J., 1962), 290. 

That the reason for excluding choir in the Society was apostolic is definitely 
confirmed in the answer given by St. Ignatius to this question: "What was the motive 
for the exclusion of choir?" — Ans. "I thought that if we were free of choir, everyone 
would be quick to regard us as lazy if they saw us little intent upon benefiting souls, 
and this would spur us on to spend our efforts for the benefit of souls" (Font.narr 
1:609, no. 137, 11). 

SpEx 355. 

16 ^ V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

6. Development of the Liturgy and St. Ignatius's Role 

To gain a deeper understanding of the present mind of the 
Church, we may with profit scan briefly the renewal, or rather the 
evolution, undergone by the concept of the Liturgy since the time of 
St. Ignatius and the part that the saint may rightly be said to have 
had in it. Interest in the Sacred Liturgy in the time of St. Ignatius 
and for many centuries since was practically confined to the duty of 
choir and its appurtenances, especially the conventual Mass. In other 

words, it was concerned chiefly 
_^ ^__^ with monastic practice. The result 

was that from the Middle Ages 
Three centuries before the liturgical activity was reserved to 

connection between frequent monks and clerics to the exclusion 

Communion and the Sacred of almost all the faithful, who 

Liturgy was once more wer e accustomed to look else- 

brought to light by St. Pius where for the nourishment of 

X, [St. Ignatius] fought their piety and for its forms. Later 

for the pious practice on, the renewal of liturgical piety, 

of frequent Communion begun initially in the eighteenth 

so strenuously that he century, but in an abstract form, 

aroused the suspicion developed at the beginning of the 

of the Inquisition. nineteenth century under monas- 

tic influences for the benefit of 
^ — — ~~"— ~^~— "^ — ^~ certain rather select groups, who 

alone were able to feel its impulse 
and enjoy its fruits. They commonly interpreted the Liturgy simply 
as the totality of the external ritual which the Church employed for 
public worship. Hence it is not strange that those who were inter- 
ested in the Sacred Liturgy, since they adhered to monastic forms, 
necessarily promoted certain practices that were less suited to the 
kind of life that St. Ignatius intended for his religious. 

The concept of the Sacred Liturgy now favored by the Church 
has become much fuller and deeper, as we shall afterwards gather 
from papal documents. The Sacred Liturgy is no longer regarded as 
a collection of external ceremonies of divine worship, but as the 
integral public worship of the whole Mystical Body, which belongs 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy $ 17 

to all the faithful 22 and into which the Church pours the deposit of 
faith and grace. 23 Nor is it considered as the activity of a single select 
and privileged group, but rather as the activity of all the faithful. 
Furthermore, nowadays the Liturgy is not restricted to monastic 
usages; on the contrary, the whole community of the Church is 
summoned to an intelligent and active participation, 24 and the 
understanding of the Sacred Liturgy is considered one of the most 
effective aids to pastoral care. 25 With what enthusiasm and love 
would St. Ignatius seize upon it, thus understood and practiced, as a 
means of helping souls! 

Did not our holy founder even then cherish this pastoral 
concept in his soul? Bold innovator that he was, three centuries 
before the connection between frequent Communion and the Sacred 
Liturgy was once more brought to light by St. Pius X, 26 he fought for 
the pious practice of frequent Communion so strenuously that he 
aroused the suspicion of the Inquisition. He continued to spread the 
practice through his Spiritual Exercises and incorporated it into his 
Constitutions. 27 He stimulated the first fathers to propagate it even 
against the bitter opposition of the clergy. Enlightened by divine 
grace, he seems to have grasped by some sure instinct that the souls 
of the faithful need that sacramental participation in the Holy Sacri- 
fice which papal and ecclesiastical documents of today characterize 
as "perfect." 28 To spread abroad this teaching and practice, he sent 
Fr. Favre and Fr. Araoz to Spain and Fr. Landini to Italy; and then 
he asked Fr. Salmeron to write a book about it. Finally Frs. Salmeron 
and Lainez defended the same theme in the Council of Trent; and in 
1562, after the death of St. Ignatius, the council declared its desire 
"that in every Mass the faithful present should communicate not 
only in spiritual desire, but also by sacramental partaking of the 

22 See MedDei 528 f. 

23 See the allocution of Pius XII in ActAposSed 48 (1956): 713. 

24 See MedDei 530-537; Mus.sac no. 22. 

25 See Div.cult p. 34; MedDei 584; 1956 allocution of Pius XII, 712. 

26 See ActSancSed 38 (1905): 400. 

27 "General Examen/' in ConsCN 80 (p. 40); C: 584 (p. 254-56), 261 (p. 116-18), 
and 342 and 343.1 (p. 142). 

MedDei 565; Mus.sac 22-c. 

18 ^ V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

Eucharist, that they might derive more abundant fruit from this most 
holy Sacrifice. ,,29 

Wonderfully did our fathers cooperate in the reform that was 
awakened by the Council of Trent, by defending and explaining the 
Catholic Liturgy and by renewing the practice of Christian worship 

among the people. In the first de- 
^ """■ ■^^ — cades of the eighteenth century, 
Hence there should vanish while many learned men, such as 

any fear that, by cultivating John Gretzer, Nicholas Serrarius, 
the Sacred Liturgy according Augustine de Herrera, John Bap- 
to the mind of the Church, tist Scortia, Peter Halloix, and Al- 

we are departing from the °y sius Cresol, were bringing to 

spirit of our holy founder or H S ht in erudite books the history 

are adopting the monastic and waning of the sacred rites 

forms that he rejected which were contemned by the 

for apostolic motives. Protestants, missionaries, such as 

Michael Coyssard, Frederick Von 
^^^^^^^^— ^^^^^^^^— Spec, Bl. Julian Maunoir, and 

many others, did not disdain to 
compose prayers and hymns, of which many are still in use, and to 
teach them carefully to the faithful, regarding this as a necessary and 
effective means of furthering their apostolate. 

But the practice of frequent Communion, despite the decree of 
Trent, was not introduced into general usage before St. Pius X urged 
the faithful to derive the spirit of religion from its chief source, 
which is "the sharing of the divine mysteries and of the common 
and solemn prayers of the Church," 30 and then published the memo- 
rable decree about frequent and daily Communion in which the 
faithful "may draw fuller training in the effects of sanctification" 31 
from the Holy Sacrifice. Long before, St. Ignatius had considered this 
practice as the highest of all forms of participation. 

Later, through the apostolic constitution Divini cultus of Pius 
XI, 32 and the encyclicals Mediator Dei 33 and Musicee sacree disciplina of 

Sess. 22, c. 6, in Denzinger, no. 944. 

30 Pius X, "De musica sacra/' ActSancSed 36 (1903): 388. 

31 ActSancSed 38 (1905): 404. 
32 ActAposSed 21 (1929): 33-41. 
33 ActAposSed 39 (1947): 521-600. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <0> 19 

Pius XII, 34 papal documents expose and propagate more and more 
earnestly the pastoral effectiveness of the Sacred Liturgy. Thus the 
path was opened for permission to publish the Roman Ritual in the 
vernacular, for the renovation of Holy Week, evening Mass, the 
mitigation of the Eucharistic fast, and other reforms down to the 
recent instruction of the Sacred Congregation of Rites "De musica 
sacra/' 35 which draws together the principal points concerning pasto- 
ral effectiveness, so that "what has been set forth in these documents 
may be more easily and surely applied in actual practice/' 36 

Hence there should vanish any fear that, by cultivating the 
Sacred Liturgy according to the mind of the Church, we are depart- 
ing from the spirit of our holy founder or are adopting the monastic 
forms that he rejected for apostolic motives. 

For the rest, a single consideration, and that by far the most 
important, should be enough for us; if our holy Father, who consid- 
ered nothing more important than "thinking with the Church," had 
heard the Church urging, as she 
does today, that the faithful 

should be introduced to an ever Sacred Liturgy means 

deeper knowledge of the Sacred the divine worship of the 

Liturgy and a more intimate share Church as prescribed and 

therein, what, tell me, would he performed by her. 

have done but most vigorously ^^^^^^^__^^^^^^^^_ 
urge us, while safeguarding the 

spirit of his Institute, to do the will of the Church with all our 
strength, and in all our ministries to see to it that the recommenda- 
tions of the Holy See be carried out, just as in his time he strenu- 
ously promoted the implementation of the Council of Trent? 

Let us now examine more closely what our Holy Mother the 
Church teaches us in our own time about the nature, aim, and use 
of the Sacred Liturgy. 

M ActAposSed 48 (1956): 5-25. 
35 ActAposSed 50 (1958): 630-663. 
36 Ibid., 631. 

20 ^ V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, SJ. 

III. The Teaching of the Church and That 

of St. Ignatius 

7. Definition and Description of the Liturgy 

Sacred Liturgy means the divine worship of the Church as 
prescribed and performed by her. "The contributions made by the 
ecclesiastical hierarchy on the one hand, and by the faithful on the 
other, are not to be regarded as two separate things; rather they 
represent the united activity of all the members of one and the same 
body, which acts as one living being. In that one entity the Church 
prays, offers, and sanctifies herself. Rightly, therefore, is the Sacred 
Liturgy called the work of the whole Church." 37 

Pope Pius XII describes it thus: "The Sacred Liturgy constitutes 
the public worship which our Redeemer, the Head of the Church, 
renders to the Heavenly Father and which the community of the 
faithful offers to its Founder and, through him, to the Eternal Father. 
To state the matter briefly, it constitutes the entire worship of the 
Mystical Body of Christ, of its Head, that is, and its members." 3 

In this worship the primacy is held by the sacraments, that is, 
"the seven principal sources of salvation," and "the celebration of the 
praise of God" which the faithful too offer in unison, whose source 
and crowning act is the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, 39 which we are 
particularly considering in this instruction. 

Though the public and social character of the Holy Sacrifice 
does not require the various modes of participation by which those 
present share in the Mass — answering the priest's words, singing, or 
in solemn Masses alternating vocally with the prayers of the cele- 
brant and joining him in the liturgical chants — still these are signs 
and supports of intimate union with the Sacrifice. Now, the solemn 
Mass enjoys a special dignity; and it is the wish of the Church that it 
be attended by a large and fervent congregation. 40 The manner in 

37 1956 allocution of Pius XII, p. 714. 
MedDei 528 f.; see Mus.sac no. 1; 1917 Code of Canon Law (CIC), c. 1256. 

39 See MedDei 522, 529 f., 547-62. 

40 Ibid., 561. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <0> 21 

which the clergy recite the Divine Office (in choir, in common, or in 
private) does not pertain to the essence of liturgical worship. 41 

The sacramentals, as they are called, and the various exercises 

of piety that the Church uses to gently fill the souls of the faithful 

with the spirit of Christ and to 

give them consolation, and also ^^_^^^_^_^_^_^^.^^ 

the sacred chants and other litur- xr . . ,. . , , . 

. , ., , , . , . , No private individual has 

gical rites by which our minds are \. ., , • - -« 

, *~ u u i u any authority to regulate the 

raised to heaven should also be v v d T 

. i . 42 exterior customs, laws, or 

most dear to us. / ' 

rubrics of public worship 

We may now, in a summary [because] "they are most 

way, draw a conclusion which is rf . connected with 

of great importance in evaluating ^ y r ,. . ,. , .., 

. ° . . r . . e ~ , ° Church discipline and with 

the relationship of Ours to the A , , .[ , , 

o j t L tl ^ ^ • ^^ order, unity, and concord 

Sacred Liturgy. The Society partici- e - ._ , . , „ , , 

n °L -11 of the Mystical Body, and 

pates in all the essential elements , J , . , , . . 

of the Sacred Liturgy-in the cele- frequently with the integrity 
oration of the Holy Sacrifice of the °f the Cathohc f atth ttse V- 

Mass, in the recitation of the Di- .^ _m 
vine Office, in the administration 

of the sacraments and the sacramentals, in the performance of pious 
exercises with the faithful. Hence, all commands and desires that 
regard the very nature of the Sacred Liturgy itself refer to our 
Society no less than to all priests and all the faithful. 

8. Internal and External Elements 

This general consideration is confirmed if we examine some- 
what more closely the teaching set forth in papal documents con- 
cerning the internal and the external elements of divine worship. 

Now, since this social Body of Christ was designed by the will of its 
Founder to be visible, the cooperation of all its members must also be 
externally manifest through profession of the same faith, through 
sharing of the same sacred rites, through participation in the same 
Sacrifice, through active observance of the same laws. 43 

41 Ibid., 572-76. 

See Mystici Corporis, 238. 
43 Ibid, 227. 

22 <0> V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

Man's very nature, since it is made up of body and soul, 
demands that the worship which the Church renders to God must 
be both exterior and interior. It must be interior because we must 
adore God in spirit and in truth; and it must be exterior, for what- 
ever issues from the soul is naturally expressed through the senses, 
and this expression in turn influences the soul. Besides, divine 
worship is the concern not only of individuals but of human society 
as well; hence, it must be social, and it cannot be such unless there 
are external bonds and external manifestations in what concerns 
religion. 44 

The encyclicals also insist time after time upon the internal 
element as the most important which should, as it were, inform the 
exterior performance of the sacred ritual and, in turn, be nourished 
by it. 'Tor we must always live in Christ and give ourselves to him, 
so that in him and through him, the Heavenly Father may be duly 
glorified. But the Sacred Liturgy requires that these two elements be 
intimately linked together. This recommendation the Sacred Liturgy 
itself does not fail to repeat again and again whenever it prescribes 
an exterior act of worship/' 45 

Indeed, the reason why no private individual has any author- 
ity to regulate the exterior customs, laws, or rubrics of public wor- 
ship lies in the circumstance that "they are most closely connected 
with Church discipline and with the order, unity, and concord of the 
Mystical Body, and frequently with the integrity of the Catholic faith 
itself/' 46 

The Sovereign Pontiff issues a stern reminder that "the true 
and genuine notion and understanding of the Sacred Liturgy" are 
distorted by those "who judge it to be only an external and sensible 

"Finally [exterior worship] especially reveals the unity of the Mystical Body 
and sets it forth in its own proper light, increases its holy zeal, fortifies its energy and 
intensifies its activity day-by-day. For though the ceremonies themselves contain no 
perfection or sanctity of their own right, they are still the outward acts of religion by 
which, as by signals, the soul is aroused to the veneration of sacred realities, the 
mind is raised to higher things. They foster piety, enkindle charity, increase faith, 
and strengthen devotion. They provide instruction for the simple, adorn divine 
worship, and preserve religion" (MedDei 530 f.). 

45 Ibid., 531; cfr. ibid., 556, 584^87. 

46 Ibid., 544; cfr CIC cc. 1257, 818; ConsCN, C: 401 (p. 166); Epitome, no. 365; 
Mus.sac no. 94. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <► 23 

part of the worship of God or an ornamental appendage of ceremo- 
nials/' 47 It is not less a mistake, he continues, to regard it simply "as 
a summary of laws and prescriptions which the ecclesiastical hierar- 
chy imposes for the orderly conduct of the rites/' 48 Briefly summariz- 
ing the whole matter, the pope lays down the principle that "the 
internal movements of our soul should so accompany the external 
elements, that we make those same sentiments our own and by 
them are lifted up to heaven, adoring the Holy Trinity and offering 
to It due thanks and praise/' 49 By them, finally, "our souls should be 
made like to the High Priest of the New Testament." 50 

9. Contribution of the Sacred Liturgy to the Spiritual Life 

But what are those habits, sentiments, and interior movements 
which the liturgical life should bring forth in our soul? 

Whenever we reverently assume a share in a liturgical func- 
tion, it is inevitable that "the faith of each one will be readier to 
operate through charity, piety will thrive and gain in fervor, and all 
will devote themselves to promot- 
ing the glory of God and, ardently 

desiring to become more closely The encyclical Mediator Dei 
assimilated to Jesus Christ in his clearly teaches that there is 

grievous suffering, will offer them- no opposition between the so- 
selves as a spiritual victim with called objective piety and 

and through the High Priest of the subjective or private piety. 

New Testament." 51 For all the ele- 
ments of the Liturgy tend to this, ^^^^^^~—~^" — ^ — ^^~ 
"that our souls may reproduce the 

image of our divine Redeemer through the mystery of the Cross . . . 
to give greater glory to the Eternal Father." 52 The Sovereign Pontiff 
urges the faithful "not to forget to offer themselves, their anxieties 
and sorrows, trials, misfortunes, and needs in union with their 

47 MedDei 532. 
48 Ibid., 532. 
49 Ibid., 574. 
50 Ibid., 560. 
51 Ibid., 558. 
52 Ibid., 559. 

24 <0> V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, SJ. 

divine crucified Head." 53 This true and interior union of all Chris- 
tians with our Lord requires the same, "that they reproduce in their 
own souls the same dispositions which our divine Redeemer con- 
ceived in his soul when he made himself a Sacrifice, by offering a 
humble surrender of mind and by rendering adoration, honor, 
praise, and thanksgiving to the supreme majesty of God." It further 
requires that the faithful deny themselves according to the precepts 
of the Gospel, that they cultivate penance and detest and expiate the 
sins they have committed. 54 

It would be superfluous to cite chapter and verse from our 
Constitutions and the Spiritual Exercises to show how we find the 
essence of their life and practice summarized in these statements. 
Our Society, then, because of the special gifts granted to it by divine 
Providence, seems to be especially called to cooperate effectively in 
arousing these interior sentiments of liturgical life in her own mem- 
bers and in the faithful, and in promoting that liturgical life in the 
Church which fully satisfies her desires and will. 

10. Private Piety and the Sacred Liturgy 

But it seems to me that I hear some saying, "What about 

private piety, which, it would 

^ _ _ ^ _____^_ seem, is not easily coupled with 

this liturgical piety?" Grave diffi- 
Genuine piety . . . needs culties have been raised in recent 

meditation and spiritual decades against what is called the 

exercises in order to be liturgical movement by some who 

nurtured and aroused, and were concerned about the true 

to flourish and prompt us interior life, the soul of all piety. 

to lead a more perfect life. Not a few discussions and contro- 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ versies would have been avoided 

if on occasion more moderate 
judgments had been advanced about mental prayer, the examination 
of conscience, spiritual exercises, and many of the forms of popular 
Christian piety. Opinions belittling devotions that are not strictly 
liturgical may be rightly countered not only by the example and 

53 Ibid., 560. 

54 Ibid., 552, 553. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy O- 25 

teaching of our divine Master, 55 but also by the very clearly ex- 
pressed mind of the Church concerning the Sacred Liturgy. The 
encyclical Mediator Dei clearly teaches that there is no opposition 
between the so-called objective piety and subjective or private piety. 
The sacraments and the Holy Eucharist have objective value "which 
really causes our souls to share the divine life of Jesus Christ. Hence 
they possess this effectiveness, not from any power of ours, but from 
that divine energy which joins the piety of the members to that of 
the Head, making it, in some sense, the activity of the whole com- 
munity. From these closely reasoned arguments some conclude that 
all piety must be centered in the mystery of the Mystical Body of 
Christ with no regard for what they call the personal or subjective. 
As a result, they think that all religious exercises not directly con- 
nected with the Sacred Liturgy and performed apart from public 
worship are to be disregarded. 

'Though the principles proposed above are excellent, the 
conclusions drawn from them about the two sorts of piety are, as 
everyone can see, altogether fallacious, insidious, and extremely 

"We must, of course, hold that the sacraments and the Sacri- 
fice of the Altar have within themselves an inner power, since they 
are the acts of Christ himself which transmit and diffuse the grace of 
the divine Head through the members of the Mystical Body; but for 
them to produce their proper effect, it is absolutely necessary that 
the soul be properly disposed. ... It is therefore to be strongly 
asserted that the work of Redemption, which is in itself something 
that does not depend on our will, requires an interior effort of the 
soul for us to be able to reach eternal salvation." 56 

The pope teaches that genuine piety, which the Angelic 
Doctor calls "devotio" and which is the principal act of the virtue of 
religion, needs meditation and spiritual exercises in order to be 
nurtured and aroused, and to flourish and prompt us to lead a more 
perfect life. 57 

He then goes on to say: "Hence in the spiritual life there can 
be no opposition or repugnance between the divine action that 


See Matt. 10:1-11; 14:23, 16:36-46; Mark 1:35; Luke 6:12, 6:6. 

56 MedDei 533 f. 

57 Ibid., 534. 

26 <$> V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, SJ. 

pours forth grace into souls to perpetuate our Redemption, and the 
strenuous cooperation of man . . . nor between the efficaciousness of 
the external sacramental rite working ex opere operato, and the merito- 
rious action of the minister or recipient, which act we call the opus 
operantis. Nor is there any opposition between public supplications 
and private prayers, nor between morality and the contemplation of 
higher things, nor between the ascetical life and liturgical piety. //58 
For this reason the Church seriously insists that all priests, clerics, 
and religious should apply themselves at stated times to meditation, 
examination of conscience, and other exercises of piety, seeing that 
they are specially designated to perform liturgical acts. 59 Later, when 
treating of the pastoral care of the faithful in general, the pope 
indicates the same: that many kinds of exercises which are not 
strictly liturgical lead the faithful to take part in public sacred func- 
tions with more abundant fruit and offset the danger "that the 
liturgical prayers may deteriorate into empty ritual/' 60 He says, too, 
that these exercises — examination of conscience, devotions in honor 
of the Blessed Sacrament or of the Blessed Virgin, frequent confes- 
sion, and devotional exercises in honor of the Sacred Heart — are 
very useful and even necessary "for instilling true piety into souls 
and for fashioning them in sanctity of life, so that they may draw 
more efficacious benefits from the Sacred Liturgy. These pious 
exercises are not to be refashioned to make them into liturgical rites; 
rather they are to be imbued with the spirit of the Liturgy." 61 

In brief, private piety will not only help to extend public 
worship, which in turn will redound to the good of the whole body 
of the Church, but it is also truly necessary, so that both the Sacrifice 
and the Sacrament of the Altar may effectively operate in souls. For 
participation in the Holy Sacrifice and the sacraments, if bereft of 
meditation and pious exercises, languishes, just as private piety 
becomes empty when the Sacrifice of the AJtar and the sacraments 
are omitted. It is not through the method of prayer, whether liturgi- 
cal or private, that the soul is united to God, but by becoming holier, 
by offering greater love to Him. 

58 Ibid., 537. 

59 Ibid. 

60 Ibid., 584. 

61 See MedDei 584-86. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <> 27 

Nor should it be overlooked that the same encyclical, while 
praising and confirming the Spiritual Exercises for their wonderful 
effectiveness when they are conducted according to the method and 
plan of St. Ignatius, adds that the proof of their spiritual fruitfulness 
is the effectiveness with which they make the worship of God daily 
better loved and more widespread, and the more intense desire by 
which the faithful are induced "to partake of the sacraments and 
treat everything holy with due reverence and honor." Recall too, the 
Supreme Pontiffs serious admonition that if these Exercises "present 
obstacles to the principles and 

norms of divine worship, or if ^^^~^^^^~^^^^^^^^~ 
they oppose or hinder them," it The more firmly the Society 

must certainly be concluded that c u ngs to j ts Institute, the 

"they are not being conducted more earnestly should it 

with proper judgment and pru- strive to prevent 

aeni zeai. ^ ne g enu { ne social 

The Vicar of Christ on earth and public meaning of the 

could hardly assert more clearly Office from being weakened 

not only that there is no opposi- by private recitation. 

tion between the liturgical life and 
the spirit of the Exercises of St. 
Ignatius but also that the correct 

method of conducting them is to be measured by the true liturgical 
spirit they arouse in souls. This anyone who keeps in view the 
purpose of the Liturgy will readily understand. 

11. The Liturgical Year 

The Divine Office by its nature is connected with the practice 
of the Liturgy as distributed throughout the year. For it is based on 
the Eucharistic Sacrifice and the use of the sacraments, and belongs 
to the worship which the Church, united to Christ her Head, offers 
to the Divine Majesty, and it embraces the hours of the day, the 
weeks, and the whole cycle of the year, and reaches all phases and 
aspects of human life. 63 The more firmly the Society clings to its 
Institute, by which it is exempted from the recitation of the Office in 
choir, and desires to keep it intact, the more earnestly should it 

62 Ibid., 586. 
63 Ibid., 572 

28 <$> V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

strive to prevent the genuine social and public meaning of the Office 
from being weakened by private recitation. For "it is the prayer of 
the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ which is offered to God in the 
name of all Christians and on their behalf, when it is said by priests 
and other ministers of the Church and by members of religious 
communities deputed to this work by the ordinance of the Church 
herself/' 64 We will increase the fruits derived from it both for our- 
selves and for the whole Church the more deeply we penetrate its 
meaning, especially in the Psalms, and the more worthily and 
devoutly we recite its several parts, and as far as possible so distrib- 
ute it throughout the day as to remain closely and continually 
united to God. 65 

The whole liturgical year is not only to be considered as a 

magnificent hymn of praise offered by the Church to the Heavenly 

Father through Jesus Christ, but it demands on our part "a diligent 

and orderly study to know our 

Redeemer better and to praise him 

ever more and more, and a vigor- 
How can we ever stray from ous effort and tireless practice in 

the true path of the spiritual imitating his my steries." 66 The Sa- 

life if we derive our , T ., , u c ,, 

J . / . cred Liturgy places before us the 

spirituality from the primary , , ,~_ . . . „ _, ,.,. 

r r , . i ii whole Christ in all the conditions 

sources from which our holy , . . w . T4T , , , t _ 

r Ml j i • j.1 n » of his life: as the Word of the Eter- 
Father drew his: the Sacred 

c . . ., .1 r .i nal Father born of the Blessed Vir- 

Scnptures, the riches of the 

tradition of the Church, and S in Mar ^ as teachin g us the tmth ' 

the mysteries healing the sick and consoling the 

of the Redemption? afflicted; as suffering and dying 

and rising triumphantly from the 
dead; as reigning in heavenly glo- 
ry, sending us the Paraclete Spirit, and living forever in his Church. 
. . . Besides, it presents him to us, not only as a model to imitate, but 
as a Teacher to whom we must readily listen, as a shepherd whom 
we must follow, and as the author of our salvation, the source of our 

64 Ibid., 573. 

65 Ibid. ,572-75. 

66 Ibid., 579. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <> 29 

sanctification, and the mystical Head whose members we are, shar- 
ing his life." 67 

Therefore the liturgical year is "not a cold and lifeless repre- 
sentation of events that belong to the past, or a simple and bare 
recalling of a former age. Rather it is Christ himself still living in the 
Church and continuing the journey of immense mercy which he 
began in his mortal life, that men might know his mysteries and in a 
sense live by them. . . . These mysteries are ever present and active 
. . . since they are shining examples of Christian perfection and 
sources of divine grace . . . and endure in us in their effects. . . . 
When the Church offers us the mysteries of our Redeemer for 
contemplation, she earnestly begs in her prayers the supernatural 
gifts whereby her children may, through Christ's power, be most 
thoroughly imbued in the spirit of those mysteries. By his inspiration 
and power, we are able, through the cooperation of our wills, to 
receive vitality as do the branches 
from the tree and the members — 

from the head. Thus we can erad- xr x7 , £ ,, £ .., £ , 

., j i i • , e Now the good of the faithful 

ually and laboriously transform . A , . . , A i ? 

J , Ll f is the principal reason at the 

ourselves into the mature measure , ,.,.«., , 

of the fullness of Christ (Eph. base of liturgical renewals 

4:13)." 68 Do not these words of the Kmce * f ar f r ° m holdm 8 aloo f 
Supreme Pontiff sketching the spi- f rom them because 

rit, progress, and effects of the of its apostolic character, 

liturgical year seem to place before the Society should, on the 

our eyes the sequence of the Spiri- contrary, most energetically 

tual Exercises, which may rightly cooperate with them. 

be regarded as the seasons of the ^_^^^^^^_^^^_^^^^_ 
liturgical year reduced to the four 

"Weeks"? Through the four Weeks the exercitant travels with Christ 
exactly the same road from the Creation to the Incarnation and the 
Ascension, just as the Sacred Liturgy conducts us from Advent 
through the cycle of the Nativity and Infancy of Christ, the Public 
Life, the Passion and Easter, and finally to Pentecost. Indeed, just as 
is the case in the Liturgy for the whole Church, so for the exercitant 
in the Exercises, there is no other Way, Truth, and Life than Christ 
in his mysteries. With him who assumed our humanity to make us 

67 Ibid., 579-80. 

68 Ibid. 580 f. 

30 <fr V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

partakers of his divinity, we must make the ascent of Calvary, that 
sharing his death we may also share his life and become his fellow 
citizens in heaven. Thus the Exercises, like an abbreviated liturgical 
year, lead us to the point where we mystically die and rise again 
together with Christ with the help of the same sacred signs, the 
mysteries, namely, which are the words and deeds of his earthly life, 
present and active within us through the faith of the Church. There 
is, then, no conflict between the liturgical life and our spiritual 
doctrine and ascetical life. More than that, for us, as for every mem- 
ber of the Church, the liturgical life is the basis of our life in Christ 
through participation in his mysteries. Indeed, it strengthens the 
vital bond by which our Society is bound to its Lord and King and 
to our Holy Mother the Church. 

How can we ever stray from the true path of the spiritual life 

if we derive our spirituality from the primary sources from which 

our holy Father drew his: the Sa- 

^^^_^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ cred Scriptures, the riches of the 

n , , L • • , tradition of the Church, and the 

Sacred chant is an integral , ^_ „ , T , 

, , ~ , T . mysteries of the Redemption? If 

part of the Sacred Liturgy. y ... . r i * • j 

r J d ^ we cultivate a lively interior and 

^__^^^^_^^^^_^^^_ exterior participation in the liturgi- 
cal life, there will necessarily be a 
spontaneously increasing personal union and familiarity with Christ 
our Lord, which is, as it were, the hinge on which the spiritual life 
turns, and also the strongest impetus and aid to apostolic activity. 

12. Apostolic Purpose of the Liturgy and of the Society 

We are an apostolic order whose end is "not only to devote 
ourselves to the salvation and perfection of our own souls with 
divine grace, but with the same to strive earnestly for the salvation 
and perfection of our neighbor/' 69 Now the good of the faithful is 
the principal reason at the base of liturgical renewals. Hence, far 
from holding aloof from them because of its apostolic character, the 
Society should, on the contrary, most energetically cooperate with 

The mind of the Church is clear and has been repeatedly 
manifested: it is that "the worship which the Church, in union with 

"General Examen," 3 (p. 24). 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <& 31 

her divine Head, renders to God is a most effective means of acquir- 
ing holiness/' 70 and that it is "an action . . . productive of holiness by 
which the Sacred Liturgy profitably directs the sons of adoption to 
their Heavenly Father." 71 Again, that "liturgical activity by public 
worship, the sacraments, and the sacramentals, sanctifies the whole 
of life," 72 and that there is "an intimate relationship between Chris- 
tian worship and the sanctification of the people." 73 

In view of its apostolic end, the Society must most vigorously 
strive to bring it about that the faithful, especially those particularly 
committed to her care "may un- 
derstand more clearly and esteem ^^^^^^^^_^^^____ 
more highly the precious treasures , . 

contained in the Sacred Liturgy," 74 r „ , . ^ . 

.« u • r i £ u • u purpose of Sacred Music 

the chief elements of which we r r . . , . , 

, c .t i t consists in this, that its 

have set forth above. Let us in no , , , ,. / . , 

„ , , lovely melodies and splendor 

way allow ourselves to be sur- , ./• , , ,,. , , 

, , tl it- ^ beautify and embellish the 

passed by others laboring in the - '* . m , cr 

. _,r,i_ t j • words of the priest who on ers 

vineyard of the Lord in matters _- J , ; , ,, ^, . \. 

- . , , , Mass and of the Christian 

which regard a work so proper to , , 

., c . °. t «. . . people who praise 

the Society, namely, to instruct A , ,, r ATT . , v, , „ 

.. rk / 1 . , , „ the Most High God. 

the Christian people carefully ° 

about the treasures of piety con- — — — — ^^^^— ^^^^— 
tained in the Sacred Liturgy, by 

means of suitable sermons, and especially through periodic confer- 
ences and public lectures . . . and the like," 75 as well as through the 
Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius illuminated and permeated by the 
liturgical life of the Church. 

The liturgical apostolate understood and conducted according 
to the mind of the Church, far from being foreign to the apostolate 
proper to our Institute, will assure rich fruitfulness to our whole 

70 MedDei 532. 

71 Ibid., 546. 

72 Ibid., 528. 
73 Cfr. Div.cult 34. 
74 MedDei494. 

75 Ibid., 593. 

32 ^ V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

apostolic labor, which can be no other than the apostolic labor of our 
Mother the Church herself, and will unite us more closely to Christ, 
our King and Leader. 

IV. Sacred Music 

13. Sacred Music and the Liturgy 

The Sacred Liturgy cannot be discussed without speaking also 
of Sacred Music, for the two are very closely linked. 

Sacred chant is an integral part of the Sacred Liturgy. In 

addition, there are popular reli- 
^^^^^^^^_^^^^^^^^_ gious songs composed, for the 

most part, in the language of the 

The power to produce this people Though these can some . 

effect is eminently found in times be introduced into liturgical 

the Gregorian chant, which serv ices and, by permission of the 

has been used in the Church Holy Se6/ int0 so lemn Masses, 

through the course they are usually used during pious 

of so many centuries and exercises. "At Masses that are not 

may be called, as it were, celebrated solemnly, they can 

her patrimony. powerfully aid the faithful to assist 

at the Holy Sacrifice, not as mute 

and inactive spectators, but by 
accompanying the sacred function mentally and vocally, and so 
joining their own piety to the prayers of the priest." 76 

14. A Means for Divine Worship 

'The dignity and lofty purpose of Sacred Music consists in 
this, that its lovely melodies and splendor beautify and embellish the 
words of the priest who offers Mass and of the Christian people 
who praise the Most High God. By its native strength and power, it 
lifts to God the minds of the faithful who are present and adds 
animation and fervor to the liturgical prayers of the Christian com- 
munity, so that all the faithful may supplicate the Triune God more 


Mus. sac. disc 20; cfr. Mus.sac 19 and 21. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <0> 33 

powerfully, more intensely, and more effectively/' /7 In common with 
the Sacred Liturgy, it has a pastoral purpose; for "St. Pius X, in the 
rules promulgated in his motu proprio about the Gregorian chant and 
sacred music, had this end chiefly in view: to arouse and nurture the 
Christian spirit of the people/' 78 

15. Preeminence of the Gregorian Chant 

The power to produce this effect is eminently found in the 
Gregorian chant, which has been used in the Church through the 
course of so many centuries and may be called, as it were, her 
patrimony. For it is the peculiar and principal chant of the church of 
Rome; hence, the Gregorian melodies are to be preferred in all 
liturgical services to all other kinds of sacred music, not only because 
they make the celebration of the sacred Mysteries more dignified 
and solemn but also because they contribute in the highest degree to 
the faith and piety of those present. 79 

16. Church Regulation about the Gregorian Chant 

The prescriptions of the Church are clear and often repeated. 
If careful provision is to be made everywhere that all the faithful 
may learn the easier and more frequently used melodies of the 
Gregorian chant and know how to employ them in the sacred rites, 80 
"great care is to be taken that those who are preparing for the 
reception of Holy Orders in seminaries and in missionary and 
religious houses of study are trained in the theory and practice of 
sacred music and of Gregorian chant by teachers who are skilled in 
these fields and who esteem the traditional customs and teachings 
and are entirely obedient to the precepts and norms of the Holy 
See." 81 More precisely, "In seminaries and other houses of study, let 
there be a brief but frequent, almost daily, lesson or practice in 
Gregorian chant and sacred music. If this is conducted in the spirit 


Mus. sac. disc 12. 
78 Div.cult 35. 


See Mus. sac. disc 15; Mus. sac no. 16; MedDei 589. 


Mus. sac. disc 16; Mus. sac no. 25-b. 


Mus. sac. disc p. 23; See "Tra le sollecitudini"; Div.cult II et V; CIC c. 1364, 1°, 
2°; c. 1365, para. 2; Mus. sac no. 109; Rat. Stud. Sup. no. 267, para. 2. 

34 ^ V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

of the liturgy, it will be comforting rather than burdensome to the 
minds of the students. ,,82 

17. Preeminence of the Solemn Mass 

'The nobler form of the Eucharistic celebration is found in the 
Solemn Mass, in which the combined solemnity of ceremonies, 
ministers, and sacred music discloses the magnificence of the divine 
mysteries and leads the minds of those present to a devout contem- 
plation of those mysteries. Effort should, therefore, be made that the 
faithful cultivate this form of celebration with due appreciation and 
by suitable participation therein. " 83 "High Mass, too, is to be highly 
esteemed; for, though it lacks the sacred ministers and the full 
splendor of the ceremonies, it is enriched with the beauty of chant 
and sacred music. //84 

V. Conclusion 

18. Faithful Adherence to the Mind of the Church 

Certainly, the encyclicals of the Supreme Pontiffs and the 
other instructions of the Holy See, when insisting upon the common 
external forms of the Sacred Liturgy, do not at all aim at leading the 
clergy and people of the Latin rites to usages which are properly 
monastic Nor are we adopting any monastic usage when we imbue 
ourselves with the spirit of the Sacred Liturgy and take part in its 
truly ecclesiastical forms, if we do so with the proper discretion that 
St. Ignatius always recommends. We are simply adopting a Catholic 

Now, if all the faithful are admonished not easily to reject the 
directions of the Sacred Liturgy, but rather — unless there be some 
reasonable hindrance — "to do everything whereby the unity of the 
Mystical Body may be more clearly manifest at the altar," 85 what, I 
ask, should the sons of St. Ignatius do, who always sought in the 

82 Div.cult 37. 


Mus.sac no. 24. 
Ibid., no. 26. 
85 MedDei 586. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <& 35 

hierarchical Church the ultimate guidance and the seat of activity of 
the Holy Spirit? 

May God grant that with one mind and one heart we may live 
the life of the Sacred Liturgy and take part in it everywhere accord- 
ing to practical norms, manifesting 
our submissiveness to our Holy 
May God grant that with Mother the Church in the spirit of 

one mind and one heart we St. Ignatius; for he summarized his 

may live the life own conviction and his love of the 

of the Sacred Liturgy and hierarchical Church — the same 

take part in it everywhere that he entrusted to our cultiva- 

according to practical norms, tion in the Spiritual Exercises— in 
manifesting our these words addressed to the em- 

submissiveness to our Holy P eror of Ethiopia: "To be united to 

Mother the Church in the the Mystical Body of the Catholic 

spirit of St Ignatius. Church which is vivified and guid- 

ed by the Holy Spirit should be 
^— ^— ^^^^— ^^^^^^^^— considered — as it truly is — a rare 

and singular benefit. For in very 
truth it is the same Spirit who teaches her and inspires her with all 
truth." 86 

I. Introduction 

1. Need of Knowledge, Appreciation, and Practice of the 
Sacred Liturgy 

The following ordinance has the same purpose for the Society 
and its ministries as the one that the instruction of the Sacred Con- 
gregation of Rites upon which it is based has for the whole clergy 
and people of the Latin Church: to reduce to practice in a uniform 
and effective way the principal papal documents, especially the 
remarkable encyclical Mediator Dei. It has in view particularly, 


Sancti Ignatii de Loyola Societatis Iesu fundatoris epistolx et instructiones, 12 
vols., vols. 22, 26, 28, 29, 31, 34, 36, 37, 38, 40, and 31 of MHSI (Madrid, 1903-11; 
reprinted 1964-68), 8:473. 

36 <$> V. Rev. John Baptist Janssens, S.J. 

though not exclusively, our houses of formation; for in them our 
young men are so to be trained that they will afterwards be able to 
train the boys in our high schools, the students in our colleges and 
universities, seminarians, and the faithful of all conditions, both at 
home and in foreign missions, in accord with the present-day think- 
ing of the Church. 

It is certain that the sons of the Society will not be able to 
carry out the obligatory precepts and the earnest wishes of the 
Church regarding an intelligent and active participation in the 
Sacred Liturgy unless they are themselves thoroughly acquainted 
with the excellence and effects of the Liturgy. "Whatever touches 
upon external religious worship is assuredly important: above all it is 
necessary to live the liturgical life/' 87 

2. Consequent Need of Formation and Training 

This purpose will not be attained unless our scholastics and 
coadjutor brothers are familiarized with the Sacred Liturgy from the 
time of their novitiate and have by 

long experience become accus- _ < __^^___ ib< ^_^_^_ i _^^^^ 
tomed to combine with external 

rites that interior mentality which "Make careful provision that 
cannot be acquired through scanty the young clerical student, 

abstract instruction, but only while being taught ascetical 

through meditation, constant use, and dogmatic and pastoral 

and almost daily practice. Hence, theology and canon law, may 
the ordinance begins with the be trained in harmony 

means to be used in imparting this with these studies 

training. to understand the sacred 

Therefore all, each according ceremonies, to appreciate 

to his office, especially rectors, their majesty and beauty, 

spiritual fathers, and prefects of and to learn the rubrics 

studies, and the scholastics them- with care." 

selves, should apply to themselves 
the words of Pope Pius XII: "Make 

careful provision that the young clerical student, while being taught 
ascetical and dogmatic and pastoral theology and canon law, may be 
trained in harmony with these studies to understand the sacred 

87 MedDei 591. 

Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy <$- 37 

ceremonies, to appreciate their majesty and beauty, and to learn the 
rubrics with care. This should be done not only for cultural reasons 
and not merely to enable the student some day to perform the 
religious rites correctly and with the seemliness and dignity befitting 
the sacred functions, but especially also to make sure that he is 
brought up in the closest bond of union with Christ the Priest so as 
to become a holy dispenser of holiness. ,,88 

3. Note on the Oriental Rites 

Though the concrete prescriptions embodied in the instruction 
of the Sacred Congregation of Rites have force only with respect to 
the Latin Rite, their spirit should be common to all rites. Hence, 
pains should be taken that in all rites, preserving intact their own 
rubrics and other laws, clergy and people and even the young who 
are being educated in non-Catholic schools understand, esteem, and 
devoutly follow the whole Liturgy whose services they ordinarily 
attend. For this reason certain general norms are added even for the 
Oriental rites. 

Though prudent account should be taken of the progress 
already being made in various localities, this ordinance is not pro- 
posed as something to be observed at the pleasure of each superior, 
but has everywhere preceptive force; and it shall be incumbent upon 
provincials to give to Father General an account of its execution in 
their reports on the visitations of houses. They should not be sur- 
prised that in some places they will have to correct established 
customs and to remedy long-standing and even perpetual omissions. 
None of the prescriptions of this ordinance are to be called impossible 
since in some places in the Society almost all of them have been 
observed with excellent results. The adaptation of provinces to liturgi- 
cal progress has varied widely. There are places where Ours have 
put on the mind of the Church in an exemplary manner. We must 
imitate them, to be true sons of that Mother who is inspired by the 
Holy Spirit. 

John Baptist Janssens 

General of the Society of Jesus 

Rome, December 25, 1959 

The Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ 

88 Ibid., 591 f. 

38 «$• Lawrence F. Madden, SJ. 

Summary of the Rest of the Ordinance 

by Lawrence F. Madden, S.J. 

1 he rest of the ordinance concerns the training of Jesuits in the 
liturgy, in liturgical music, and the proper ways to employ the 
liturgy in our apostolate. It contains specific directives for Jesuits in 
houses of formation and in houses of study and details what specific 
aspects of the Liturgy should be taught to young Jesuits in the 
various stages of their formation. It also specifies the levels of partici- 
pation in the Eucharist to be encouraged, depending on the degree 
of solemnity of the feast that is celebrated. 

Then follow directives for our colleges and seminaries for 
externs, where all are to be instructed in the Liturgy and in singing 
Gregorian chant. Specific directions are given to foster the students' 
ability to enter into full participation in the Eucharist. Then there are 
directives for our churches, whether parish or non-territorial. Every- 
thing should be done to open the riches of the Liturgy to the faith- 
ful. On Sundays and feast days the principal Mass should be sung 
and in other Masses both the Gospel and Epistle should be read in 
the vernacular. Boys choirs are highly recommended for all our 
churches; and if organists and choir masters cannot contribute their 
services, they should be paid a just salary for them. 

Jesuits in the foreign missions are instructed to adapt native 
music to sacred use where possible and to respect the religious 
sensibilities of the people. 

Finally, Jesuits of Oriental rites are to apply the principles of 
the liturgical renewal with due regard for the diversity of rites and 
the characteristics of each. The general encourages those capable of 
doing so to devote themselves to the study of the Oriental liturgies. 

Questions for Discussion <f 39 

Questions for Community Discussion 

The following sets of questions are best discussed in small groups. 
The first set has reference to Father Janssens's document and re- 
quires no special introduction by the leader. The second set is 
designed to guide a reflection on our experience of a Jesuit commu- 
nity liturgy. The leader should ask the members of the group to take 
a few moments to reflect on an experience they have had of a 
particular Jesuit community liturgy. When all are ready, the leader 
proceeds with the questions. 

Set 1 

1. What points in the letter seem to be the most important? 

2. The general writes about the complementarity of liturgical spiritu- 
ality and Ignatian spirituality. How have you experienced that? 

3. It has been said that any Christian community worthy of the 
name must pray together regularly. Does your Jesuit community 
pray together with sufficient frequency? 

4. In your opinion, has the general's call for serious liturgical forma- 
tion and training been answered effectively? 

5. Does Father General's letter call for any decision on your part? 
On the community's part? 

Set 2 

1. What was your external and internal experience of the liturgy? 
What did you see, feel, touch? 

2. What did it mean to you? 

3. What did the experience reveal to you about God? Church? Self? 

4. What doctrines and beliefs are involved in this experience? 

5. What does the Church's teaching on the liturgy say related to 
your experience? 

6. Bring the Tradition into dialog with your experience and under- 

7. Are your views changed? Are any decisions to be made as a 
result of this reflection and discussion? 



I just reread your introduction to 
STUDIES (34, no. 5 [November 2002]), 
and was moved by your appeal to 

On Monday, the last week of the 
liturgical year, I preached at the daily 
school Mass here at Loyola Blakefield. 
After weeks of being immersed in 
"the last things," I wondered if we 
might not be forgetting that the Res- 
urrection has already happened and 
that, however strangely to our minds 
Holy Spirit (as Basil Pennington calls 
Her) works, She most certainly is at 
work in our world. I cited as my chief 
example the crumbling of the Soviet 
Empire and stated that the falling of 
the Eastern European dominoes in 
the late 1980s was "the most unex- 
pected and marvelous series of events 
during my lifetime." I also referred to 
George Weigel's development of John 
Paul II's role in the fall of the Soviets. 

Your words were, I thought, dark 
and pessimistic; and seen from one 
perspective, it's easy enough to view 
what's happening lately from that 
stance. We don't have the whole pic- 
ture, however. We can't see, except 
perhaps in retrospect, how God's plan 
develops. Regarding what happened 
to Jesus, certainly John's attitude un- 
der the Cross on Good Friday was 
greatly changed by the time Easter 
Monday rolled around. 

No doubt you have pondered, 
both when you read the Ring Trilogy 
and as you see the film reenactments, 
how dark and threatening the world 
appears to Frodo and his companions. 
Per aspera ad astra. There is no easy 
way to redemption. The journey is 
perilous and the cost tremendous. 
Look at the enormous treasure of 
goods and lives required to quash the 
Reich of a Thousand Years and the 
Imperial Sun of Nippon, replete with 
the death camps for Jews, the abomi- 
nable treatment of our prisoners of 
war, and the hecatombs of slaugh- 
tered Chinese. (Iris Chang comes to 
mind here.) 

Indeed, as you state, the present 
condition of the world gives added 
acerbity and cogency to the Two Stan- 
dards and the Call of the King. Our 
King needs our help, yet on a level 
we cannot fully grasp, he is already 
victorious. What to make of that is 
something someone more skilled in 
the Exercises than I will have to wres- 
tle with. 

Thank you for your challenge 
and for your labor in providing us 
Studies (which I share with my lay 
colleagues here at Blakefield). 

Paul Cawthorne, SJ. 

Loyola Blakefield 
500 Chestnut Avenue 
Towson, MD 21204-3789 


Past Issues: Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 
1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 
2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 
2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 
3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 
3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 
3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 
3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 
4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 
4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation (June 1972) 
4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A Symposium 
(Oct. 1972) 
5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response (Jan. -Mar. 1973) 
5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 
5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 

5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 
6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 
7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today Qan. 1975) 
7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 
7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 
7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in General 

Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 
8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 
8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others, On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evangelical Poverty 
(Mar.-May 1976) 
8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 
9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-75; Others, Reactions and Explanations 
(Jan.-Mar. 1977) 
9/4 Connolly, hind, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 1977). 
9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out"— Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist (Jan. 1978) 
10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Connolly- Land 

(Sept. 1978) 
11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 

11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 
11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 
11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 
12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small Apostolic 
Communities (Mar. 1980) 

Conwell, Living and E>ying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 

Schineller, Newer Approaches to Christology and Their Use in the Spiritual Exercises (Sept. -No v. 
13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 
13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 
14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation (Jan. 1982) 

14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 

14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 

14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 

15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 

15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit Charisms (Mar. 


15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself A Brief History of the 32nd General Congregation of the 

Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 

15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nodal and the Jesuit Vocation (Mar. 


16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East (May 1984) 

16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 

16/5 Kinerk, Eliciting Great Desires: Their Place in the Spirituality of the Society of Jesus (Nov. 1984) 

17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 

17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission (Mar. 1985) 

17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 

17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 

17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 1985) 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration. (Mar. 1986) 

18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 

18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 

19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 

19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 

19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 1987) 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards (Jan. 1988) 

20/2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 

20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 

20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 1988) 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 1989) 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al., The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor (Mar. 1989) 

21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 

22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 

22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 

22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 

22/4 O'Sullivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 

22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 

23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled Qan. 1991) 

23/2 DiGiacomo, Ministering to the Young (March 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/2 Donahue, What Does the Lord Require? (March 1993)— ONCE AGAIN AVAILABLE 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/1 Tetlow, The Most Postmodern Prayer (Jan. 1994) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/4 Foley, Stepping into the River (Sept. 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/2 Veale, Saint Ignatius Speaks about "Ignatian Prayer" (March 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Informationes Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29/5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem-Is It Level or Winding? (Nov. 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the Spiritual Exercises of 

Ignatius of Loyola (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but . . . (or So... )?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church— Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fullam, Juana, S.J.: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy (Jan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al., Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education (Jan. 2001) 

33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Parsons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 

33/4 Veale, Saint Ignatius Asks, "Are You Sure You Know Who I Am?" (Sept. 2001) 

33/5 Barry and Keenan, How Multicultural Are We? (Nov. 2001) 

34/1 Blake, "City of the Living God" (Jan. 2002) 

34/2 Clooney, A Charism for Dialog (March 2002) 

34/3 Rehg, Christian Mindfulness (May 2002) 

34/4 Brackley, Expanding the Shrunken Soul (Sept. 2002) 

34/5 Bireley, The Jesuits and Politics in Time of War (Nov. 2002) 

35/1 Barry, Jesuit Spirituality for the Whole of Life (Jan. 2003) 

35/2 Madden/Janssens, The Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy (March 2003) 

♦ New ♦ 
Common Testimony 

by Carl F. Starkloff, S.J. 

The puzzle of "faith and culture," of "inculturation," has 
been with Christianity almost from its beginnings. Customs of 
the American Indians (1724; English translation 1974) by 
Joseph Lafitau, S.J., also deals with that puzzle. What he was 
struggling with was cut from the same cloth as the struggle of 
Las Casas, Ricci, Ramon Lull, Boniface, Gregory I, or Augustine of 
Canterbury, stretching back to the "Council of Jerusalem." 

Ethnologists regard Lafitau's work as a "classic"; even today 
researchers admire it as a gold mine because of its wealth of 
data. Yet few theologians know of him or his work. Common 
Testimony: Ethnology and Theology in the Customs of Joseph 
Lafitau situates Lafitau and his work in France and among Native 
Americans in the contexts of his times, deals with him as an 
ethnologist and as a "systematic theologian," and discusses his 
work in the light of the thought of two contemporary theologians 
on religion, Bernard Lonergan and Karl Rahner. 

The author of Common Testimony, Carl F. Starkloff, S.J., has 
combined a career as a systematic theologian with work among 
Native Americans. He has taught at Regis College of the Toronto 
School of Theology, at Rockhurst University, and at Saint Louis 
University. Most recently he has been an associate editor at the 
Institute of Jesuit Sources and is presently vice-president for 
Missions and Ministry at Saint Louis University. 

xii + 218 pages, Index The Institute of Jesuit Sources 

$18.95 paperback 3601 Lindell Blvd. 

ISBN 1-880810-44-1 St. Louis Mo, 63108 

Tel: 314-977-7257 
Fax: 314-977-7263 



An annual subscription is provided by the ten United States provinces 
for U.S. Jesuits living in the United States and U.S. Jesuits who are still 
members of a U.S. province but living outside the United States. 


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